December 27, 2012

We are living through difficult and boisterous time. A period of rapid changes in world economic and political system, a time of powerful crisis that is shaking the fundaments of national states and of national economies and is putting under strain the social protection and all the values of economic neo-liberalism.

professor dr.Anton Caragea at kazakhstan 2050

In this chaotic period, just a few nations are allowed the luxury of economic and political long time forecast and predictability: China and United States are creating and proposing to their people and foreign partners a long term vision of development and national statehood construction.
In a time of peril and un-certitude, when even a short time economic prediction is considered hazardous, just a few nations are having the will to act as beacons of lights and direction for their region.

In 17th of December 2012 Kazakhstan had enter to this select club of nations, conscientious of their role and position in the continental and world stage by presenting an ambitious, realistic and well carved plan for future of Kazakhstan until 2050.
By the voice of his President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan had created the prototype of a long term, healthy and stable construction model for the country, the region and the world.

Kazakhstan 2030: weathering the storm and creating a nation.

Kazakhstan it is not at the first step in a managed transition towards a stable and democratic society and a powerful economy.
In 1997 Kazakhstan had already carved the landmarks of his astonishing development by the presidential strategy- Kazakhstan 2030.
Far from being just a window dressing, the strategy for 2030 had proved to be a perfect way for charting Kazakhstan after the independence in the incertitude of nation building and construction of a viable economy.
The program had allowed Kazakhstan to tap into national reserves of oil and gas, to gush out of the enclave country status via the reconstructed Silk Road of energy and trade, to create a modern economy, not depending only on energy resources, to build a huge potential of national intelligence and to foster the economy of knowledge, the base for a XXI century reliable economy.

The long string of economic successes was accompanied in the internal sphere by political stability, based on democratic and open society values, the protection of national and religious minorities.
In the area of external policy, Kazakhstan had gather the powerful laurels of a successful reform project carried out during his Presidency of Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. An impressive success was also the unprecedented two year chairmanship of Organization of Islamic Conference that transformed Kazakhstan in a leader of dialogue between Islam and Western world.

The latest major diplomatic achievement of Kazakhstan was the proposal of building an area of security and cooperation in Europe and Asia, launched in September 2012, in Astana, at CICA Conference by President Nursultan Nazarbayev. This latest proposal makes Kazakhstan the promoter of an all-inclusive, intercontinental dialogue, that could transform the political landscape of XXI century.
In the end, Kazakhstan 2030 had proved to be not only a successful strategy for Kazakhstan, but also an example for all the countries of the world on how a nation by the sole fact of building himself, can become a regional and world significant player.

The main pillar of Kazakhstan 2050: understanding of XXI century.

In its world acclaimed book: The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, the famous Lawrence of Arabia had mentioned that: the most important, but also decisive part of a plan is to be in line with the necessity of his time.
Kazakhstan 2050 starts by outlining the fundaments of the world in XXI century. A period of change, of accelerating history, of economic, political and ecological challenges, a world completely different from the world of XX century.
Instead of training to force the reality to enter in the realm of possibility, Kazakhstan 2050 is offering a realistic and practical assessment of the necessities of today world and of the available solutions.
Fallowing his long term tradition, Kazakhstan understands that creating a success story and offering solutions to the world is the best way to serve not only his interest, but also to add value to his place in the world.
Kazakhstan 2050: good news for people of Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan had become in the last 20 years an abode of peace, inter-ethnic and inter-religious understanding in a troubled world. One of the explanation is undoubtedly the economic success that made the Kazakhstan not only one of the fastest growing economy in the world, but also a top investor destination in the world economy statistics.

Kazakhstan 2050 is providing the basis for this healthy economy to continue his growth process. Investing in social protection and creating a strong internal demand are key factors for a stable rate of growth. Modernizing the economic potential, investing in new technologies are policy that will insure the world competitiveness of Kazakhstan national economy and the creation of a knowledge based economy are also a profitable long term investment.

The modern economy is based on technological transfer and Kazakhstan is becoming a champion in modernizing the basis of his economy via technology transfer and more important, Kazakhstan educational system mixed with the accent on entrepreneurship in economic development is creating the base for a managerial revolution, that will put Kazakhstan among the top economy`s of the world in term of creativity and intelligence incorporated in economic production.

Extremely interesting it is also the concept of a Kazakhstan patriotism. Instead of playing the card of nationalism or chauvinism, President Nursultan Nazarbayev is calling for the tradition, language and equality to blend into a new and successful Kazakh: a person well educated, wealthy , healthy enjoying the benefits of a modern state and administration and a state of the art medical system.
Kazakhstan is promising to put at the core of his foundation plan for 2050 the individual and his chances to prevail in a complex XXI century.

From Kazakhstan to the world. From world to Kazakhstan.

One of the keys of Kazakhstan national and international success was understanding that Kazakhstan could not evolve alone in the world, but always must stay in touch and be an intricate part of the world evolutions. There are many examples that support this conjecture in Kazakhstan two decades of independence story.

Kazakhstan economic miracle was built on partnership with western companies and oil extraction technology, but also on political negotiation with Russia on Caspian Sea exploration.
The Astana Expo 2017 will also be a proof of the lesson of mutual profit that Kazakhstan is offering to the world. Kazakhstan management of energy, the lessons of ecology and energy for a future, of environment protection, are going to be beneficial for the world economy and for the generations to come. This is just a new illustration of the Kazakhstan concept of successful quest for global significance.
Kazakhstan economic development had transformed the country in a major player in the development of Asia and Europe. Kazakhstan 2050 promises to continue this wise policy: from Kazakhstan to the world, from world to Kazakhstan, creating a synergy that could only beneficial for all the world nations.

Now the lessons of Kazakhstan 2050 are available for everybody: an example of a society of free people building a country for the future, not in isolation or competition, but in harmony with the world nations. In the concert of nations Kazakhstan is ushering in a new tone: a tone of hope.

Professor dr. Anton Caragea MA, FINS, Dr.Hc


December 19, 2012


Anton caragea finalizeaza conferinta

The illusory perfect world of the XXI century.

At the beginning of the twentieth century optimistic geopolitics, led by the famous thinker Francis Fukuyama, believed that we are witnessing the fulfilling prophecy on the end of history.
At first glance everything seemed to give them justice: the market economy seem to liquidate traditional inequalities between countries and promised an era of overall development and steady growth of the living standards.
If, on the level of the individual safety, market economy promised abundance and absence of crises, in the field of global security the developments seemed to ensure a better future.

The permanent EU enlargement ensured security on the European continent, joining former Cold War adversaries in a forum of development, democracy, security and general welfare, it seemed that a future in which even Russia will become a member of the European Union was not one too far away.
On military level NATO appeared to be an invincible military shield and it seemed to become even a global alliance which was to provide at indications of the Security Council, missions to impose global order. The global equation of stability seems solidly built.
Nothing has remained from this perfect picture of a better world.
NATO intervention in Afghanistan and the defeat suffered has influenced the future plans of the Alliance, the announced withdrawal from Afghanistan in 2014, ends long-standing contingency plans for NATO trouble spots.
From now on there will be only punctual interventions with duration of less than one year, the only ones that the Alliance can do effectively.
Instead of a coherent NATO interventions focusing on post-conflict reconstruction, we started to become witnesses of illegal intervention or of unilateral actions from the NATO members, which do not only exceed the action out of the alliance, but it also contradicts its fundamental principles.
The EU crisis, which began as an economic crisis that hit Greece, Spain, Portugal and Ireland became a general economic crisis and blocked the expansion of the political union, expansion was supposed to be a future of prosperity for Europe.
The EU political crisis threatens more and more achievements that were once considered as permanent certainties: the right to free movement is questioned, the right to work is severely restricted and fined and the portrait of EU as a club of democracies is as severe questioned by the expansion of right-wing parties and by the blocking of the democratic mechanisms which no longer work on the continent.

Increased security risks.

The collapse of the safety certainties led to the revival and development of security risks: forgotten border conflicts are worldwide present, territorial conflicts in the Far East are among the most visible.
In Europe, the Kosovo crisis questioned the stability of the boundaries drawn after World War II, and there are here additional trouble spots throughout the Balkans and throughout Central Europe.
All these attract with them increased security risks and general instability, with only two possible outcomes: return to arms race and to the conflicts we thought forgotten after 1945 or rebuilding a new system of global security.

Voice of reason.

In September 2012, when leaders of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) was held in Astana, capital of Kazakhstan, the usual speech reception, group pictures and final smiles were expected.
They were to have a surprise. Before them, their host President Nursultan Nazarbayev presented a comprehensive project to revive the dialogue and reduce tensions in the Euro-Asian.
It was not the first time the president of Kazakhstan surprised their guests with comprehensive and ambitious reform plans.
Everyone remembers in 2010, when Kazakhstan took over the Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
Everyone expected a usual cosmetic presidency, of a prestigious organization in free fall and utility. It was not to be like this.
President Nursultan Nazarbayev launched a project to reform and restructure the OSCE, put in foreground the overall security projects and the restoration of OSCE action potential. The organization was not able to meet leaders in 1999, Kazakhstan has managed to achieve this performance. OSCE failed for two decades to bring together the civil society leaders, but in 2010, within the Conference of Bucharest, Kazakhstan has managed to do that.
At the end of a one year term, Kazakhstan has managed to inject fresh vigor into an organization that seemed irreversible affected by routine and inefficiency.
Now the voice of reason, the voice of Kazakhstan, is heard again: it is time for a platform of security and cooperation in the Euro-Asian and Euro-Atlantic area.

The security and cooperation platform.

The New Security and Cooperation initiative, launched by President Nursultan Nazarbayev states:
– Creation of a zone of stability that connects the Atlantic and Asia, the European and Asian continents.
– Establishment of a mechanism of interaction, flexible and based on tangible results and creation of communication channels.
– Unification of the countless existing organizations on global security: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), CSOT (Collective Security Treaty Organization), CICA (Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia), the OSCE (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe).
– Focus of the dialogue on general security issues, banning the nuclear tests – initiative ATOM (stopping nuclear tests worldwide)
The methods of the new organization: Platform for Security and Cooperation Euro-Asian and they promise to help ease the global climate:
– Imposing the consensus as the only method of action of the new organization
– Solving of the crises by dialogue and diplomatic means
– Focus new organization on the central problems such as geopolitical rivalry / reducing global distrust / fight illegal migration / fight against trafficking in human beings and drugs / counter terrorism and extremism and suppression of territorial claims.

Kazakhstan – clear action, concrete results.

President Nursultan Nazarbayev said from the very beginning that his country will lead by example and will convince through clear results about the usefulness of its initiative.
Thus Kazakhstan launched in 1990, a successful initiative for the denuclearization of the region Central Asia, closed the nuclear test polygon from Semipalatinsk and gave up a huge arsenal of nuclear weapons (third in the world after the U.S. and Russia).
With such results, Kazakhstan took the flag of the fight for nuclear disarmament, having demonstrated that a nuclear country may renounce its weapons for promoting world peace. Not by words but by deeds, seems to be the motto of Kazakhstan’s international action.
Thus, President Nazarbayev announced at the nuclear disarmament meeting in Seoul, the initiative to create an international bank for uranium, an entity meant to control the resources and use of nuclear material for peaceful projects.
The establishment of such a bank would block traffic fusion materials, would allow nuclear arms control and allow the commencement of global nuclear disarmament. The new initiative received immediate support from the United States and the United Nations, as being the only reasonable proposal to address the problem of trafficking in nuclear materials.
Meanwhile, Kazakhstan has proposed a less ambitious goal, the ATOM initiative to ban nuclear tests and has made this initiative a decision available to all people, building a specialized website where any responsible citizen can support initiatives designed to have a world without the risk of nuclear tests.
In Afghanistan, where the military solution failed, Kazakhstan has shown that the humanitarian solution gives results: hundreds of Afghan students graduate courses in Kazakh universities, laying the foundations, by providing the necessary personnel for the economic, administrative and health recovery of a country devastated and laying the foundations of a return to normality. Also construction of social facilities (schools, hospitals, health centers) developed the only strategy that works: higher standards of living.
The counter-drug fight reduces the sources of income of the destructive elements and Afghanistan rises again from the ashes of a failed military intervention.
As to the economic crisis, the Kazakhstan’s president has built in his country the third world economy as growth rate, but he was concerned that only nation achieves economic growth, but he also provided a platform for combating global crisis.
The solutions to fight the crisis were offered free, together with the necessary consultation.
While other solutions have failed and world organizations have enormous cost, the Kazakhstan’s offers as a solution to the crisis is only up to people affected by the crisis if they want to apply or not.
Finally, the most recent contribution of Kazakhstan to the political and economic crisis, is the rebuilding the Silk Road. The Silk Road brought prosperity and security from Asia to Europe for two millennia.
Now with 5,000 kilometers of road built by Kazakhstan will link China to St. Petersburg and bring raw materials in emerging markets in Asia and will connect the European consumers with products offered by the Asian market.
By its revolution in transport, Kazakhstan has become the bridge between Asia and Europe, the area of transport and logistics and has become the host of dozens of trans-regional and multilateral organizations, connecting the Asia-Pacific, Europe-Atlantic area.

professor Anton Caragea-President of Eurasian Conference

Romania-Kazakhstan: a joint voice for global security

After offering the example of a modern nation, contributing effectively to the global debate on crucial issues such as nuclear safety and solving of the global economic crisis, the new proposal of the President Nursultan Nazarbayev promises to offer a solution to avoid a ravaging conflict in the XXI century.
Romania’s response to the initiative of Kazakhstan can only be positive, given the long tradition of Romanian efforts towards disarmament and creation of a global security system.
The Romanian voice must be with Kazakhstan’s initiative in setting up the platform for Security and Cooperation in the Euro-Asian and Euro-Atlantic integration, as the only reliable solution to ensure not only national security but also to bring our contribution to the great idea debate of the century.
Our country’s voice must be heard again in support of world peace!

Speech delivered by professor dr. Anton Caragea as the President of Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe and Asia -Bucharest-November 2012


December 18, 2011

An old proverb says that every man is an epoch, and rarely do we see such a confirmation in a life of a person as the embodiment of an era as in the life and work of Nurmuhammet Andalyp- the national poet of Turkmenistan.

Nurmuhammet Andalyp extensive work and the amplitude of the human knowledge field in which he had activated made him, maybe more than other contemporaries to feel that he was living the end of an age: the age of umma and the beginning of a new time-the time of nation states.

Nurmuhammet Andalyp : the national poet of Turkmenistan

 At the cross roads of the XVII and XVIII centuries the Central Asia was involved in tremendous transformation ,that will pave the road for nation state and nation identity building.

The main configuration of this epoch, or trend if you prefer it so was the end of the Islamic ideal of umma embodied in the declined of the three major Islamic powers of that time: Persian Empire, Ottoman Empire and Mogul India.

All three major empires embodied the Islamic concept of umma of Islamic unity in political and religious action. The Ottoman Empire absolved this concept after Selim Yavuz campaign in Syria and Egypt at the beginning of XVI centuries that lead to the downfall of Mameluc State and to the transfer of Caliphate to Istanbul. From that moment the Ottoman Sultan raised claims until the end of Ottoman Empire at the end of First World War that he will speak as leader of the Faithfull and in their behalf.

The Persian Empire after safavid revolution and acceptance of shia`s as official doctrine did not accepted this as a limitation of his influence, just the opposite personalities like Shah Abass the Great or Nadir Shah tried to use this as an argument for an Islamic leadership of umma. Finally the Mongol Empire in India was also transmitting by art, history and ideology the message of being at the forefront of Islamic umma, as Emperor Humaiyun explained bluntly to Persian Shah, we are the true representatives o f Islamic action at the borders of Islam.

All this three attempt of recreating the Islamic umma, the ideal of a borderless, unified, cultural Islamic community was reaching his end. In India Mogul Empire was slowly but surely decaying on English control , in Europe ottoman empire was in disarray after the defeat at the walls of Vienna and finally the Persian Empire was suffering from internal conflicts and several external defeats .

This moment was clearing the way for the XIX century ideal of reform and of nationalistic agenda and for the ideal of a nation state and nation building. In this complex climate Nurmuhammet Andalyp   is starting his existence. His education is clearly that of an intellectual of the Middle Ages, or of umma. Is based on tradition, on Koran and hadit`s analyses on study of Muslim, Bucara, Thirmidy, Ibn Marja and is reflected in his work of Jafar El Sadie –the great shier thinker and Imam.

So it is a conservative based education of religious horizons. The travel to Bagdad it is also an important part of this traditional Islamic education, the value of travel is highly regarded in Islamic education and a hadith says that you have to go even to China to acquire knowledge .So his education in Bagdad, even that information is scarcely is very possible and is the part of the Islamic upbringing. Ahmed Hogea Yassauy-the Kazakh national poet goes also on travel to Bagdad and Damascus.

A travel to Bagdad for education is exactly what Nurmuhammet needs for his work and image of this last age of search for a medieval type umma. The travel to Bagdad is probably enlarging his knowledge on fiqh-islamic jurisprudence and in kalam-islamic theology that are very clear notable in poems like Kyssai Furgun, that could  be described as a perfect example of  koranic based analyses of Moses role in Egypt and in Islamic theology. Undoubtedly there is a pronounced poetry structure into his poem but the knowledge of interpretation of Koran is clearly noticeable.

Also Nurmuhammet receives another emblem of typical Islamic upbringing, his practical works skill in carpentry and farming. The Islamic tradition requires, not as in Europe, a distain towards practice work, but in contrary a good knowledge of practice work. Sultan Mohammed the II Conqueror of Constantinople was an able arch builder, his father Sultan Murad a specialist in dwelling construction, no ruler could gain the respect of his followers without having practical skills.

Nurmuhammet practical skills are exactly a part of this necessary upbringing and wide horizons that Islamic education of the time was supposed to be imposed on pupils. Despite this Islamic-umma centered education Nurmuhammet destiny and works show us a personality that reached forward to destiny and to the future of his people: nation state building and ideology.

Oguznama – his main patriotic or nationalist opera is exactly the kind of opera that could stay at the bases of national renaissance.

The Greek national renaissance is based on the revival of Homeric Poems , Italy is looking at the roman empire in XIX centuries when is recreating his national unity, German are looking toward Barbarossa or even deeper in history at Arminius the legendary defeater of Rome , France is looking at Vercingetorix and the gauls . Turkmen are looking justly at Oguznama and Nurmuhammet Andalyp. By a stroke of genius the work that needs to create a national literature, to create national community of destiny was created.

The construction of national identity is preceding the nation state building because is offering the key elements to a nation state: a common history that is binding the people together with the same memory, the same common traces and emotions and personalities.

After a common history book a nation state needs a common language and Oguznama is offering exactly this – a common value history and a common standard of language. Dante `s language in Divina Comedia became modern Italian and the history that binds Italian people together, Oguznama became the same unifying factor in Turkmenistan history. Also a creation of national identity needs to draw a direction line, to set a standard for the evolution of a country and a people.

It is necessary to show them that in the past there is a perfect model for them. If they achieved greatness and prosperity once, they will achieve it again, it is what is called the authority citation – a historic proof of the viability of the state and his existence. Oguznama is offering exactly this authority quotation from history. In just 11 chapters Andalyp succeeded in offering the bases for national construction in the beginning of XVIII centuries in a perfect work that rather seems to be the fruition of XIX or XX century mind that  an XVIII century vision.

The rest of Andalyp works are perfect example of an umma ideal sharing and of a perfect poet of his time. Kyssai Furgun and Sagdy Vkgas are both having the same Islamic impact and Koran exegesis in poetic terms that is making an age from medina to Otrar or from Agra to Istanbul.

Undoubtedly Andalyp vision is a special one as we see here a mixture of identifiable Shia tradition and folk story or Sunni respectability exegesis’s or even Sufi inclination. Jamal din Maulana Rummi influence is clearly pointed out, the Abu Muslim exegesis is also transparent but the great role of Andalyp in retelling a story old as earth and century the story of Moses is the reinterpretation and mixture of all this elements.

If he will just be satisfied with a Sufi vision or a Sunni vision or a shia interpretation than Andalyp will just have being a normal poet of Sufi or Sunni allegiance but no, his interpretation is so mixed that is becoming original and the old story of pharaoh is becoming dress in new clothes: the clothes of perfect poet-of Nurmuhammet Andalyp. This originality that survives in almost all of his works is I think traceable in his love for folklore, for popular poetry, extremely visible in Destan likes Leili Mejun.

Andalyp is not just a folklore or popular tales collector, he is not just repeating stories but he is enriching them and transformed old themes in philosophical analyses objects. He is not a troubadour in European concept, her is not just an enlighten in Sufi expression or just a regular court poet. His experience, his sturdy life is saving him from mediocrity every time and is placing him in the forefront.

One more time Andalyp is surpassing his age being closer to the XIX and XX century folk collectors that are putting the bases of national literature by collecting and updating g traditional folk stories and poems. Andalyp is doing exactly that unknowingly opening an era.

This tide rope walking between tradition and modernity is no where more visible as in Yusup –Zuleiha Destan. The Destan is written at the request of Shirgazi Han, ruler of Kiva between 1715-1723. This seems to be the beginning of any arab or Islamic poetry in the Middle Age  from Harun Al Rashid to Suleiman Kanuni , a ruler orders a love poetry and the poet reveals to the enchanting world a beautiful poem and his moths is filled by the caliph with pearls in recognition of his poetic achievements . Not here.

Andalyp escapes one more a common destiny, he does not receive the pearls but he creates a pearl. A jewel about sacred love and profane love, a contest between good and evil, between war and peace and a sharply and sad regarded on human destiny and life come from a man who nicknamed himself as THE POOR-GARYP. Yusup Zuleiha becomes just the pretext of a love poem and is transformed in political analyses and in a declaration, a manifesto of his poetic and humanist ideals of patriotic ardor and peace.

In this destan is his all life comprises: a medieval type ruler asks for a medieval theme and composition and Andalyp pretending that is complying with the subject and traditional structure of a poem celebrating love is creating a poem manifesto.

How can we regard Andalyp work? Undoubtedly his patriotic and nationalist construction will guarantee his survival as long as Turkmen people will live, because Andalyp succeed something that only great poets succeed: to identify himself with his people so strong that no amount of time could separate them.

Also Andalyp remains an interesting personage, the last intellectual of umma in medieval shape and a messenger of a new world of nation’s states. A poet of love and a poet of political stance and manifesto. The last of courtly poets and the first national poet. All this are true and untrue in the same time because as Andalyp escaped any classification 300 years ago he still eludes us today. Why?

Maybe because Andalyp will always be the poet of Gull-of a flower, the flower of Turkmenistan independence and power and glory and this does not require any classification just an appreciation. Andalyp and Turkmenistan will always be one staying proud before centuries.

Professor Dr. Anton Caragea -MA, FINS